Planning is the act of making a set of decision or alternatives for future action in that way the human and material resources will be used in better way. Planning is surely different from policy, decision making and administration. Policy is a common statement to guide decision making, decision is all about selecting from different alternatives, administration means using suitable policies to carry out the decisions. Planning includes both what is to be done, when, by what resources, by whom, and for what purposes.

Types of planning

There are two types of planning, each type has its own purposes. Strategic planning and management planning.

Strategic planning:

             This kind of planning should receive basic attention because it covers the determination of policies and the formation of new goals and aims. This should be of special interest to educational leaders who have great responsibility for developing plans because, if it use in better way it will surely helpful the commitment.

Management planning:

It is all about the effective and efficient achievement of goals and objectives have been agreed upon and accepted. Through proper management planning the responsible of decisions should be able to make sure that all aims goals and objectives are achieved. Unless proper goals and aims are accepted through strategic planning, even the very effective and useful management will less important.

Stages of planning

There are several stages of planning. Most important of these are:

Pre planning

      The major task in the pre-planning stage is formulation of educational objectives and their approval by the proper authorities. The next steps would be:

  • Determining planning procedures
  • Creation of administrative machinery
  • Collection and analysis of relevant data


The second stage in this process is planning. The main steps in the stage are:

Diagnosis Policy

Plan formulation

         It is the preparation of short, but sufficient statements for:

  • Allow the national authorities to make decisions and approved program
  • Providing a plan for action and implementation

 Plan detail

Before the implementation of educational plan, it is necessary to elaborate clearly action units. The process of elaboration includes:


This step divides the plan into wide action areas of which goals at acquiring a particular objectives. A program contains activities usually directed by the same administrative unit.

Project formulation

A project aims at achievement of particular sub-objective within the main objective of program. Project formulation working out the details of costs, time and schedule etc.

Plan application

Here the planning process consolidates with management process. Depend upon the annual budget, an organizational framework is developed for various projects. The resources (men, money and materials) are assembled to implement the project of the plan.

Plan evaluation

During the implementation of the plans, continuous evaluation of the rate of progress and observation of differences continues. This evaluation points out weakness in the plans unrealistic target, improper financial facilities, improper phasing for necessary correction. It also provides the basis for re-planning.



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